Transport biofuels provide not only a renewable and sustainable alternative to finite resources of fossil fuels, but are also biodegradable, non toxic and can provide significant carbon savings compared to fossil fuel. A particular advantage of biofuels is that being highly biodegradable they do not pollute soil and waterways if spilt, posing less of an environmental risk than fossil fuels.
Biofuels can be used in all vehicles from buses to boats, and require little or no engine modification. Their use can lead to a cut in carbon dioxide emissions of 50-80% compared with fossil fuels. Biofuels can be either liquids or gases. Liquid biofuels are divided into replacements for fossil petrol or diesel.
Biodiesel is produced through a process known as transesterification, which separates glycerine from vegetable oil, leaving biodiesel as a product. The glycerine can then be used in the making of other products, such as soap. Biodiesel can be used as a straight fuel, or blended with mineral diesel to create a diesel blend> Both types can be used without any engine modification. Current EU regulations and standards allow for blends of up to 7% biodiesel. Hydrogenated vegetable oils (HVO) can be used as drop-in fuels.